Performance Evaluation and Enhancement in 5G Networks : A Stochastic Geometry Approach
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The deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which low power nodes (LPNs) and high power nodes (HPNs) coexist, has become a promising solution for extending coverage and increasing capacity in wireless networks. Meanwhile, several advanced technologies such as massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO), cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) and device-to-device (D2D) communications have been proposed as competent candidates for supporting the next generation (5G) network. Since single technology cannot solely achieve the envisioned 5G requirements, the e ect of integrating multiple technologies in one system is worth to be investigated. In this thesis, a thoroughly theoretical analysis is conducted to evaluate the network performance in di erent scenarios, where two or more 5G techniques are employed. First, the downlink performance of massive MIMO enabled HetNets is fully evaluated. The exact and asymptotic expressions for the probability of a user being associated with a macro cell or a small cell are presented. The analytical expressions for the spectrum e ciency (SE) and energy e ciency (EE) in the K-tier network are also derived. The analysis reveals that the implementation of massive MIMO in the macro cell can considerably improve the network performance and decrease the demands for small cells in HetNets, which simpli es the network deployment. Then, the downlink performance of a massive MIMO enabled heterogeneous C-RAN is investigated. The exact expressions for the SE and EE of the remote radio heads (RRHs) tier and a tractable approximation approach for evaluating the SE and EE of the macrocell tier are obtained. Numerical results collaborate the analysis and prove that massive MIMO with dense deployment of RRHs can signi cantly enhance the performance of heterogeneous C-RAN theoretically. Next, the uplink performance of massive MIMO enabled HetNets is exploited with interference management via derived SE and EE expressions. The numerical results show that the uplink performance in the massive MIMO macrocells can be signi cantly improved through uplink power control in the small cells, while more uplink transmissions in the macrocells have mild adverse e ect on the uplink performance of the small cells. In addition, the SE and EE of the massive MIMO macrocells with heavier load can be improved by expanding the small cell range. Lastly, the uplink performance of the D2D underlaid massive MIMO network is investigated and a novel D2D power control scheme is proposed. The average uplink achievable SE and EE expressions for the cellular and D2D are derived and results demonstrate that the proposed power control can e ciently mitigate the interference from the D2D. Moreover, the D2D scale properties are obtained, which provide the su cient conditions for achieving the anticipated SE. The results demonstrate that there exists the optimal D2D density for maximizing the area SE of D2D tier. In addition, the achievable EE of a cellular user can be comparable to that of a D2D user. Stochastic geometry is applied to model all of the systems mentioned above. Monte Carlo simulations are also developed and conducted to validate the derived expressions and the theoretical analysis.
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