Zinc bioglasses regulate mineralization in human dental pulp stem cells
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Objective. A promising strategy in regenerative endodontics is the combination of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) with an appropriate biomaterial substrate. The effects of zinc and zinc containing bioactive glasses (ZnBGs) on hDPSCs have been characterized in this study. Methods. ZnBGs were designed and produced. Then the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization potential of hDPSCs upon ZnBGs treatment were investigated. Results. Free Zn ions (0–5 ppm) enhanced proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hDPSCs. Further, ZnBGs conditioned medium (ZnBG-CM) increased the production and secretion of odontogenic markers: dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1). In addition, we identified that mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2, OCN, BSP, BMP-2, MEPE and ON was increased following treatment with ZnBG-CM. Long term treatment with ZnBG-CM increases the formation rate of mineralized nodules (similar to hydroxyapatite, Ca:P = 1.6), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Lastly, the administration of ZnBG-CM induces VEGF expression. Significance. These findings implicate that ZnBG would be beneficial in regenerative endodontics and could influence the way present Zn containing clinical products are used. © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.