Exploring HTTP Header Manipulation in the Wild
Headers are a critical part of HTTP. It has been shown that they are increasingly subject to middlebox manipulation. Although this is well known, little is understood about the general regional and network trends that underpin these manipulations. In this paper, we collect data on thousands of networks to understand how they intercept HTTP headers in-the-wild. Our analysis reveals that 25% of measured ASes modify HTTP headers. Beyond this, we witness distinct trends amongst different regions and AS types; for example, we observe high numbers of cache headers in poorly connected regions. Finally, we perform an in-depth analysis of types of manipulations to characterise how they differ across continents.
AuthorsTYSON, G; Huang, S; Cuadrado, F; Castro, I; Perta, C; Sathiaseelan, A; Uhlig, S; World Wide Web Conference
- Networks Group