Underlying chronic inflammation alters the profile and mechanisms of acute neutrophil recruitment.
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Chronically inflamed tissues show altered characteristics that include persistent populations of inflammatory leukocytes and remodelling of the vascular network. As the majority of studies on leukocyte recruitment have been carried out in normal healthy tissues, the impact of underlying chronic inflammation on ongoing leukocyte recruitment is largely unknown. Here, we investigate the profile and mechanisms of acute inflammatory responses in chronically inflamed and angiogenic tissues, and consider the implications for chronic inflammatory disorders. We have developed a novel model of chronic ischaemia of the mouse cremaster muscle that is characterized by a persistent population of monocyte-derived cells (MDCs), and capillary angiogenesis. These tissues also show elevated acute neutrophil recruitment in response to locally administered inflammatory stimuli. We determined that Gr1(low) MDCs, which are widely considered to have anti-inflammatory and reparative functions, amplified acute inflammatory reactions via the generation of additional proinflammatory signals, changing both the profile and magnitude of the tissue response. Similar vascular and inflammatory responses, including activation of MDCs by transient ischaemia-reperfusion, were observed in mouse hindlimbs subjected to chronic ischaemia. This response demonstrates the relevance of the findings to peripheral arterial disease, in which patients experience transient exercise-induced ischaemia known as claudication.These findings demonstrate that chronically inflamed tissues show an altered profile and altered mechanisms of acute inflammatory responses, and identify tissue-resident MDCs as potential therapeutic targets. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
AuthorsMa, B; Whiteford, JR; Nourshargh, S; Woodfin, A
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