Hard Carbon Microtubes Made from Renewable Cotton as High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries
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© 2016 WILEY-CH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted more and more attention for scalable electrical energy storage due to the abundance and wide distribution of Na resources. However, the anode still remains a great challenge for the application of SIBs. Here the production of uniform hard carbon microtubes (HCTs) made from natural cotton through one simple carbonization process and their application as an anode are reported. The study shows that the electrochemical performance of the HCTs is seriously affected by the carbonization temperature due to the difference in their microstructure and heteroatomic content. The HCTs carbonized at 1300 °C deliver the highest reversible capacity of 315 mAh g-1 and good rate capability due to their unique tubular structure. This contribution not only provides a new approach for the preparation of hard carbon materials with unique tubular microstructure using natural inspiration, but it also deepens the fundamental understanding of the sodium storage mechanism.