Efficacy of silicate-substituted calcium phosphate with enhanced strut porosity as a standalone bone graft substitute and autograft extender in an ovine distal femoral critical defect model.
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A synthetic bone graft substitute consisting of silicate-substituted calcium phosphate with increased strut porosity (SiCaP EP) was evaluated in an ovine distal femoral critical sized metaphyseal defect as a standalone bone graft, as an autologous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) extender (SiCaP EP/ICBG), and when mixed with bone marrow aspirate (SiCaP EP/BMA). Defects were evaluated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks with radiography, decalcified paraffin-embedded histopathology, non-decalcified resin-embedded histomorphometry, and mechanical indentation testing. All test groups exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osseous healing as evidenced by an initial mild inflammatory response followed by neovascularization, bone growth, and marrow infiltration throughout all SiCaP EP-treated defects. SiCaP EP/ICBG produced more bone at early time points, while all groups produced similar amounts of bone at later time points. SiCaP EP/ICBG likewise showed more favorable mechanical properties at early time points, but was equivalent to SiCaP EP and SiCaP EP/BMA at later time points. This study demonstrates that SiCaP EP is efficacious as a standalone bone graft substitute, mixed with BMA, and as an autograft extender.