This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Malanchini, M., Tosto, M. G., Garfield, V., Dirik, A., Czerwik, A., Arden, R., Malykh, S. and Kovas, Y. (2016), Preschool Drawing and School Mathematics: The Nature of the Association. Child Development, 87: 929–943. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12520, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12520. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.