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dc.contributor.authorBoyde, A
dc.contributor.authorDavis, GR
dc.contributor.authorMills, D
dc.contributor.authorZikmund, T
dc.contributor.authorCox, TM
dc.contributor.authorAdams, VL
dc.contributor.authorNiker, A
dc.contributor.authorWilson, PJ
dc.contributor.authorDillon, JP
dc.contributor.authorRanganath, LR
dc.contributor.authorJeffery, N
dc.contributor.authorJarvis, JC
dc.contributor.authorGallagher, JA
dc.description.abstractHigh density mineralised protrusions (HDMP) from the tidemark mineralising front into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) were first described in Thoroughbred racehorse fetlock joints and later in Icelandic horse hock joints. We now report them in human material. Whole femoral heads removed at operation for joint replacement or from dissection room cadavers were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual echo steady state at 0.23 mm resolution, then 26-μm resolution high contrast X-ray microtomography, sectioned and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, blocks cut and polished and re-imaged with 6-μm resolution X-ray microtomography. Tissue mineralisation density was imaged using backscattered electron SEM (BSE SEM) at 20 kV with uncoated samples. HAC histology was studied by BSE SEM after staining block faces with ammonium triiodide solution. HDMP arise via the extrusion of an unknown mineralisable matrix into clefts in HAC, a process of acellular dystrophic calcification. Their formation may be an extension of a crack self-healing mechanism found in bone and articular calcified cartilage. Mineral concentration exceeds that of articular calcified cartilage and is not uniform. It is probable that they have not been reported previously because they are removed by decalcification with standard protocols. Mineral phase morphology frequently shows the agglomeration of many fine particles into larger concretions. HDMP are surrounded by HAC, are brittle, and show fault lines within them. Dense fragments found within damaged HAC could make a significant contribution to joint destruction. At least larger HDMP can be detected with the best MRI imaging ex vivo.
dc.description.sponsorshipJ.A.G. has received support from the AKU Society and the Rosetrees Trust. The development of the XMT scanner at QMUL was supported by EPSRC EP/G007845/1 to G.R.D.en_US
dc.format.extent436 - 446
dc.rights“The final publication is available at”
dc.subjectdystrophic calcification
dc.subjecthyaline cartilage
dc.subjectsubchondral bone
dc.subjectCartilage, Articular
dc.subjectFemoracetabular Impingement
dc.subjectFemur Head
dc.subjectMagnetic Resonance Imaging
dc.subjectX-Ray Microtomography
dc.titleOn fragmenting, densely mineralised acellular protrusions into articular cartilage and their possible role in osteoarthritis.
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.relation.isPartOfJ Anat
dc.relation.isPartOfJ Anat
dc.relation.isPartOfJ Anat
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry/Institute of Dentistry
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry/Institute of Dentistry/Oral Growth & Development

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