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dc.contributor.authorHsu, ASen_US
dc.contributor.authorVlaev, Ien_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-21T10:19:35Z
dc.date.available2014-02-26en_US
dc.date.issued2014-05en_US
dc.identifier.otherC
dc.identifier.otherC
dc.identifier.urihttp://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/10843
dc.descriptionpublisher: Elsevier articletitle: Monetary cost for time spent in everyday physical activities journaltitle: Social Science & Medicine articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.043 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.descriptionpublisher: Elsevier articletitle: Monetary cost for time spent in everyday physical activities journaltitle: Social Science & Medicine articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.043 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.description.abstractWe measured utility curves for the hypothetical monetary costs as a function of time engaged in three everyday physical activities: walking, standing, and sitting. We found that activities requiring more physical exertion resulted in steeper discount curves, i.e., perceived cost as a function of time. We also examined the effects of gain vs. loss framing (whether the activity brought additional rewards or prevented losses) as well as the effects of the individual factors of gender, income, and BMI. Steeper discount curves were associated with higher income (annual household ≥ median of $45,000) and gain framing (which indicates loss aversion). There were interactions between gender and frame, and also income and frame: Females and higher income participants showed loss aversion whereas males and lower income participants were not affected by framing. Males showed less discounting in gain frames relative to females, whereas females showed less discounting in loss frames relative to males. In gain frames, higher income participants discounted more but in loss frames there was no effect of income. We also found individual tendencies for discounting across activities: if an individual exhibited steeper discounting for one activity, they were also more likely to exhibit steeper discounting for the other activities. These results have implications for designers of interventions to encourage non-exercise physical activities, suggesting that loss-framed incentives are more effective for women and those with middle class (or greater) incomes. Furthermore loss framed incentives have more uniform impact across income brackets because people discount loss frames similarly regardless of income whereas those with middle-class incomes are not as motivated by gain frames. Our results also demonstrate a general method for examining the costs of effort associated with everyday activities.en_US
dc.format.extent74 - 80en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.relation.ispartofSoc Sci Meden_US
dc.rights© 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ The final publication is available at Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.043
dc.subjectDecision makingen_US
dc.subjectDiscountingen_US
dc.subjectEfforten_US
dc.subjectGain and loss framesen_US
dc.subjectIncome, gender, overweight, behavioural economicsen_US
dc.subjectNon-exercise activityen_US
dc.subjectAdolescenten_US
dc.subjectAdulten_US
dc.subjectAgeden_US
dc.subjectBody Mass Indexen_US
dc.subjectFemaleen_US
dc.subjectHumansen_US
dc.subjectIncomeen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectMiddle Ageden_US
dc.subjectMotor Activityen_US
dc.subjectOverweighten_US
dc.subjectSex Factorsen_US
dc.subjectTime Factorsen_US
dc.subjectUnited Statesen_US
dc.subjectYoung Adulten_US
dc.titleMonetary cost for time spent in everyday physical activities.en_US
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.043en_US
pubs.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24632051en_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
pubs.volume108en_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2014-02-26en_US


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